Difference between revisions of "IoTGateway/BSP/Linux/iMX7/Yocto LBV8 User Guide"

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= Getting Started =
 
= Getting Started =
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== <span style="color:#0070c0">Conventions</span> ==
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<span style="color:purple">'''${PREBUILT_IMAGE}'''</span>&nbsp;: compressed prebuilt image (*.img.gz)
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<span style="color:purple">'''${CONTAINER_NAME}'''</span>&nbsp;: container name (e.g. imx6LBV8040)
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<span style="color:purple">'''${BSP_TARBALL}'''</span>&nbsp;: BSP tarball (*.tgz)
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<span style="color:purple">'''${BSP_HOME}'''</span>&nbsp;: home directory of the BSP
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<span style="color:purple">'''${BDIR}'''</span>&nbsp;: build directory (e.g. build_x11)
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<span style="color:purple">'''${MX7PROC}'''</span>&nbsp;: i.MX7 Processor
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:mx7d for iMX7 Dual Core
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<span style="color:purple">'''${IMX7PROC}'''</span>&nbsp;: i.MX7 Processor
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:imx7d
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<span style="color:purple">'''${BOARD}'''</span>&nbsp;: available target boards list below
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:ebcrm01
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<span style="color:purple">'''${BOARD_REV}'''</span>&nbsp;: board revision
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:a1
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<span style="color:purple">'''${MC}'''</span>&nbsp;: machine code combined with <span style="color:purple">'''${IMX6PROC}${BOARD}${BOARD_REV}'''</span>
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:for example,
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::<tt>imx7debcrm01a1 for EBC-RM01 A1</tt>
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<span style="color:purple">'''${MEM_SIZE}'''</span>&nbsp;: memory size
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:2G
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<span style="color:purple">'''${SD_DEVICE}'''</span>&nbsp;: device name of SD card in Linux (e.g. /dev/sdf)
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<span style="color:purple">'''${SDCARD_IMAGE}'''</span>&nbsp;: sdcard image built by bitbake (*.sdcard)
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<span style="color:purple">'''${WORKSPACE}'''</span>&nbsp;:&nbsp;host workspace folders
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<span style="color:purple">'''${UBOOT}'''</span>&nbsp;:u-boot version(e.g. 2016.03)
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<span style="color:purple">'''${KERNEL}'''</span>&nbsp;: linux kernel version(e.g. 4.1.15)
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<span style="color:purple">'''${TOOLCHAIN}'''</span>&nbsp;: toolchain installed directory(e.g. /opt/fsl-imx-x11/4.1.15-2.0.0)
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debug console / serial console
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:serial terminal program (e.g. minicom, putty, teraterm ...) that serial port is configured to 115200 8N1
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terminal console
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:terminal program (e.g. gnome-terminal, xfce4-terminal ...)
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== <font color="#0070c0">Docker install and setting</font> ==
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<span style="font-size:larger;">'''<span style="color:#0070c0">If you don't have docker in your system, then you can follow the below &nbsp;steps to install docker and run it first.</span>'''</span>
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=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To install Docker Engine on your platform</span> ===
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:Please refer to [https://docs.docker.com/engine/installation/ Docker Installation Guide] for details
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=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To pull [https://hub.docker.com/r/advrisc/u12.04-imx6lbv3/ ubuntu 12.04 image from Docker Hub]&nbsp;</span> ===
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:<code>$ docker pull advrisc/u12.04-imx6lbv3</code><br/>
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:<code>$ docker run --name imx6LBV8xxx&nbsp;&nbsp;-it advrisc/u12.04-imx6lbv3 /bin/bash</code><br/>
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=== To copy BSP from local filesystem to the container ===
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:<code>$ docker cp '''${BSP_PACK}''' imx6LBV8xxx:/home/adv/&nbsp;</code>
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=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To&nbsp;create&nbsp;container</span> ===
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:<code>$ docker run --privileged -it --name '''${CONTAINER_NAME}'''&nbsp;-v '''${WORKSPACE}''':/home/adv/adv-release-bsp -v /dev:/dev&nbsp;advrisc/u12.04-imx6lbv3 /bin/bash</code><br/>
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== <span style="color:#0070c0">Get BSP</span> ==
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:You have two methods to put BSP into container created above
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=== <span style="color:#0070c0">Download BSP From GitHub</span> ===
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:The following example shows how to download the Advantech Yocto BSP from GitHub.
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:For this example, a directory called '''adv-release-bsp''' is created for the project.
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:Refer to&nbsp;[[IoTGateway/BSP/Linux/iMX7/OS_Support_List_new|IoTGateway/BSP/Linux/iMX7/OS Support List new]] , Official version "'''imx6LBV8xxx"&nbsp;'''is taken as&nbsp;an example&nbsp;:
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$ git config --global user.name "Your Name"
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$ git config --global user.email you@example.com
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$ mkdir adv-release-bsp
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$ sudo chown adv:adv adv-release-bsp
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$ cd adv-release-bsp
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$ repo init -u [git://github.com/ADVANTECH-Corp/adv-arm-yocto-bsp.git git://github.com/ADVANTECH-Corp/adv-arm-yocto-bsp.git] -b '''refs/tags/imx6LBV8xxx''' -m '''imx6LBV8xxx'''.xml
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$ repo sync
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:If you want to get latest bsp
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$ repo init -u [git://github.com/ADVANTECH-Corp/adv-arm-yocto-bsp.git git://github.com/ADVANTECH-Corp/adv-arm-yocto-bsp.git] -b imx-4.1-krogoth
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$ repo sync
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=== <span style="color:#0070c0">Copy BSP tarball to Container</span> ===
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:If you have BSP tarball (eg. imx6LBV8xxx_2018-xx-xx.tgz), then you have to copy it into container.
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Follow the steps below:
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1.Exit container and back to local machine
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 +
$ exit
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2.Copy BSP tarball to ${WORKSPACE} , and change owner
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$ cp imx6LBV8xxx_2018-xx-xx.tgz '''${WORKSPACE}'''
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$ sudo chown adv:adv ${WORKSPACE}/imx6LBV8xxx_2018-xx-xx.tgz&nbsp;
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3.Back to container
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$ docker start '''${CONTAINER_NAME}'''
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$ docker attach '''${CONTAINER_NAME}'''
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4.Unpack BSP tarball
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$ tar zxvf imx6LBV8xxx_2018-xx-xx.tgz
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== <span style="color:#0070c0">Downloads tarball</span> ==
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:Not necessarily step
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:During building &nbsp;Yocto image , it will generate downloads folder which includes all packages we need , but it usually can't fetch normally, so we keep this downloads folder. Then we can reduce some fetch failed issue.
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:You can get Downloads tarball (downloads-2.1.tar.gz) from following URL:
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:<code>[https://pan.baidu.com/s/1nvqgx2T#list/path=/ELAA/imx6_yocto_bsp_2.1_2.0.0/downloads&parentPath=/ELAA https://pan.baidu.com/s/1nvqgx2T#list/path=%2FELAA%2Fimx6_yocto_bsp_2.1_2.0.0%2Fdownloads&parentPath=%2FELAA]</code>
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:If you get downloads tarball, you can copy to your '''${WORKSPACE}'''
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Follow the steps below:
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1.Exit container and back to local machine
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$ exit
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2.Copy Downloads tarball to ${WORKSPACE} , and change owner
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$ cp downloads-2.1.tar.gz '''${WORKSPACE}'''
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$ sudo chown adv:adv ${WORKSPACE}/downloads-2.1.tar.gz&nbsp;
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3.Back to container
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$ docker start '''${CONTAINER_NAME}'''
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$ docker attach '''${CONTAINER_NAME}'''
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4.Unpack Downloads tarball
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$ tar zxvf downloads-2.1.tar.gz
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5.make link to downloads folder
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$ cd adv-release-bsp
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$ ln -s ${WORKSPACE}/downloads_2.1 downloads
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== <span style="color:#0070c0">Introducing BSP</span> ==
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:The BSP is based on Yocto Project with Freescale enhanced features for i.MX6, plus specific target board features from Advantech Inc..
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:The Advantech Yocto Project BSP Release directory contains a "sources" directory, which contains the recipes used to build,
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one or more build directories, and a set of scripts used to set up the environment.
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:The recipes used to build the project come from both the community and Advantech. The Yocto Project layers are downloaded
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 +
to the sources directory. This sets up the recipes that are used to build the project.
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=== <span style="color:#0070c0">Naming Rule</span> ===
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:The tarball/prebuilt image name is consist of the model name followed by "LB" or "LI" plus version number and released date.
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:For example, '''BSP file name: imx6LBV8040_2017-01-16.tgz'''<br/>
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:which , "LB" is acronym of <span style="color:#ff0000">'''L'''</span>inux <span style="color:#ff0000">'''B'''</span>SP,<br/>
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:&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;"V8040" stands for <span style="color:#ff0000">'''V'''</span>ersion <font color="#ff0000">'''8'''</font>.<span style="color:#ff0000">'''040'''</span><nowiki>.</nowiki>
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:For example, '''Yocto image name: 7421A1LIV8040_DualPlus_2017-01-16.img.gz'''<br/>
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:which "7421A1" stands for <span style="color:#ff0000">'''ROM-7421 A1'''</span><br/>
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:&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; "LI" is acronym for prebuilt <span style="color:#ff0000">'''L'''</span>inux <span style="color:#ff0000">'''I'''</span>mage,<br/>
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:&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; "DualPlus" means this image is fit for Dual Plus Core/Quad Plus Core.
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 +
:For example, '''Yocto image name: 3420A1LIV8050_DualQuad_2017-01-17.img.gz'''<br/>
 +
:which "3420A1" stands for <span style="color:#ff0000">'''ROM-3420 A1'''</span><br/>
 +
:&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; "LI" is acronym for prebuilt <span style="color:#ff0000">'''L'''</span>inux <span style="color:#ff0000">'''I'''</span>mage,<br/>
 +
:&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; "DualQuad" means this image is fit for Dual Core/Quad Core.
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 +
:For example, '''Yocto image name: U220A1LIV8080_DualLiteSolo_2017-02-08.img.gz'''<br/>
 +
:which "U220A1" stands for <span style="color:#ff0000">'''UBC-220 A1'''</span><br/>
 +
:&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; "LI" is acronym for prebuilt <span style="color:#ff0000">'''L'''</span>inux <span style="color:#ff0000">'''I'''</span>mage,<br/>
 +
:&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; "DualLiteSolo" means this image is fit for Dual Lite Core/Solo Core.
 +
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=== <span style="color:#0070c0">BSP Content</span> ===
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<div style="margin-left:0.499cm; margin-right:0cm">The description of some important folders list below:</div><div style="margin-left:1.499cm; margin-right:0cm">'''sources/'''</div><div style="margin-left:1.998cm; margin-right:0cm">'''meta-advantech/'''&nbsp;: meta layer by Advantech</div><div style="margin-left:1.998cm; margin-right:0cm">'''meta-fsl-*/'''&nbsp;: meta layer by Freescale</div><div style="margin-left:1.499cm; margin-right:0cm">'''fsl-setup-release.sh'''&nbsp;: to create one new build environment</div><div style="margin-left:1.499cm; margin-right:0cm">'''setup-environment'''&nbsp;: to continue an exist build environment</div>
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== <span style="color:#0070c0">Build Instructions</span> ==
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=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To create one new build environment</span> ===
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:Perform the following commands in terminal console
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::<code>$ cd <span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BSP_HOME}'''</span></code>
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::<code>$ MACHINE=<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${MC}'''</span> source fsl-setup-release.sh -b <span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BDIR}'''</span> -e x11</code>
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:You need to read and accept the EULA.
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:[[File:Accept EULA.png|RTENOTITLE]]
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=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To continue an exist build environment</span> ===
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:Perform the following commands in terminal console
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::<code>$ cd <span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BSP_HOME}'''</span></code>
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::<code>$ source setup-environment <span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BDIR}'''</span></code>
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=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To build sdcard image</span> ===
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:To create/continue a build environment
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:Perform the following command in terminal console
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::<code>$ bitbake fsl-image-qt5</code>
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:The file, fsl-image-qt5-<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${MC}'''</span>.sdcard, will be located in directory, ./tmp/deploy/images/<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${MC}'''</span>, while building process finished successfully.
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=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To build toolchain installer</span> ===
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:To create/continue a build environment
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:Perform the following command in terminal console
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::<code>$ bitbake meta-toolchain-qt5</code><br/>
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:The below installer will be located in the directory "./tmp/deploy/sdk".
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::<tt>fsl-imx-x11-glibc-x86_64-meta-toolchain-qt5-cortexa9hf-vfp-neon-toolchain-<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${KERNEL}'''</span>-1.1.0.sh</tt><br/>
 +
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=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To build u-boot</span> ===
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:To create/continue a build environment
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:Perform the following command in terminal console
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::<code>$ bitbake u-boot-imx</code>
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:The two files, u-boot_crc.bin & u-boot_crc.bin.crc, will be located in the directory, ./tmp/deploy/images/<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${MC}'''</span>.
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=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To modify source code and rebuild u-boot</span> ===
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:To create/continue a build environment
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:Perform the following command in terminal console
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::to modify source code and created a patch file
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:::<code>$ git diff > test.patch</code>
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::to create "u-boot-imx" directory and copy the "test.patch" file in following path
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:::<code>sources/meta-advantech/meta-fsl-imx6/recipes-bsp/u-boot$</code>
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::to open "u-boot-imx_2016.03.bbappend" file in following path
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:::<code>sources/meta-advantech/meta-fsl-imx6/recipes-kernel$vi u-boot-imx_2016.03.bbappend</code>
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:::<code>FILESEXTRAPATHS_prepend&nbsp;:= "${THISDIR}/${PN}:"</code>
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:::<code>SRCBRANCH = "imx_v2016.03_4.1.15_2.0.0_ga"</code>
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:::<code>UBOOT_SRC = "..."</code>
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:::<code>SRCREV = "${AUTOREV}"</code>
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::to add path information of patch file to u-boot-imx_2016.03.bbappend file
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:::<code>SRC_URI += "file://test.patch</code>
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::to clean u-boot image and code if you modify content of "mx6*.defconfig" file or "Makefile" file in the patch file
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:::<code>$ bitbake u-boot-imx -c cleansstate</code>
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::to build u-boot image
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:::<code>$ bitbake u-boot-imx</code>
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=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To build linux kernel</span> ===
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:To create/continue a build environment
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:If you operate on docker images, please install tmux application before running this command
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:::<code>$ sudo apt-get install tmux</code>
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:Type following command to enter tmux
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:::<code>$ tmux</code>
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:Perform the following command in terminal console to show up menuconfig
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:::<code>$ bitbake linux-imx -c menuconfig</code>
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:After edit menuconfig, type following command to exit tmux windows
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:::<code>$ exit</code>
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:to build kernel image
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:::<code>$ bitbake linux-imx</code>
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:The two files, zImage & zImage-<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${IMX6PROC}'''</span>-<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BOARD}'''</span>-<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BOARD'''</span>'''<span style="color:#7030a0">_REV</span><span style="color:#7030a0">}</span>'''.dtb, will be located in the directory, ./tmp/deploy/images/<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${MC}'''</span>.
 +
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=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To modify source code and rebuild linux kernel</span> ===
 +
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:To create/continue a build environment
 +
:Perform the following command in terminal console
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::to modify source code and created a patch file
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:::<code>$ git diff > test.patch</code>
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::to create "linux-imx" directory and copy the "test.patch" file in following path&nbsp;
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:::<code>sources/meta-advantech/meta-fsl-imx6/recipes-kernel/linux/linux-imx$</code>
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::to open "linux-imx_4.1.15.bbappend" file in following path&nbsp; (<code><span style="color:#FF0000;">linux-imx</span>_4.1.15.bbappend will check&nbsp;<span style="color:#FF0000;">linux-imx</span> folder&nbsp;&nbsp;</code>)
 +
:::<code>sources/meta-advantech/meta-fsl-imx6/recipes-kernel/linux/$vi linux-imx_4.1.15.bbappend</code>
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:::<code>FILESEXTRAPATHS_prepend&nbsp;:= "${THISDIR}/${PN}:"</code>
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:::<code>SRCBRANCH = "imx_4.1.15_2.0.0_ga"</code>
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:::<code>KERNEL_SRC = "..."</code>
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:::<code>SRCREV = "${AUTOREV}"</code>
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::to add path information of patch file to linux-imx_4.1.15.bbappend file
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:::<span style="color:#FF0000;"><code>SRC_URI += "file://test.patch</code></span>
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::to clean kernel image and code if you modify content of "imx_v7_adv_defconfig" file or "Makefile" file in the patch file
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:::<code>$ bitbake linux-imx -c cleansstate</code>
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::to build kernel image
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:::<code>$ bitbake linux-imx</code>
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 +
== <span style="color:#0070c0">Creating boot-up on-board flash from prebuilt image</span> ==
 +
 +
=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To create one boot-up SD card</span> ===
 +
 +
:Perform the following command in terminal console
 +
::<code>$ gunzip -c '''<span style="color:#7030a0">${PREBUILT_IMAGE</span>''' | dd of=<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${SD_DEVICE}'''</span> bs=1M</code>
 +
::<code># sync</code>
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 +
=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To transfer whole system to on-board flash</span> ===
 +
 +
:Boot up from SD card
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:Perform the following commands in debug console
 +
::<code># cd /mk_inand</code>
 +
::<code># ./mksd-linux.sh /dev/mmcblk0</code>
 +
:press y followed by Enter, if following message shows up:
 +
::[[File:All data will be destroyed.png|RTENOTITLE]]
 +
:While "[Done]" shows up means the transferring is finished.
 +
 +
== <span style="color:#0070c0">Creating boot-up on-board flash from built sdcard image</span> ==
 +
 +
=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To create one boot-up SD card</span> ===
 +
 +
:Perform the following commands in terminal console
 +
::<code>$ pushd <span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BSP_HOME}'''</span>/<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BDIR}'''</span>/tmp/deploy/images/<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${MC}'''</span></code>
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::<code>$ dd if=<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${SDCARD_IMAGE}'''</span> of=<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${SD_DEVICE}'''</span> bs=1M</code>
 +
::<code>$ sync</code>
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::<code>$ popd</code>
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=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To transfer whole system to on-board flash</span> ===
 +
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:Boot up from SD card
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:Insert USB stick that contains <span style="color:#7030a0">'''${SDCARD_IMAGE}'''</span>, USB stick will be auto mounted to /run/media/sda1.
 +
:Perform the following commands in debug console
 +
::<code># umount /dev/mmcblk0p?</code>
 +
::<code># cd /run/media/sda1</code>
 +
::<code># dd if=<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${SDCARD_IMAGE}'''</span> of=/dev/mmcblk0 bs=4M conv=fsync</code>
 +
::<code># P2START=$(fdisk -lu | grep mmcblk0p2 | awk '{print $2}')</code>
 +
::<code># echo -e "d\n2\nn\np\n2\n<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${P2START}'''</span>\n\nw\n" | fdisk -u /dev/mmcblk0</code>
 +
::<code># umount /dev/mmcblk0p2</code>
 +
::<code># e2fsck -f -y /dev/mmcblk0p2</code>
 +
::<code># resize2fs /dev/mmcblk0p2</code>
 +
::<code># poweroff</code>
 +
 +
== <span style="color:#0070c0">Debug console information</span> ==
 +
 +
If you want to see debug message from device, you need to prepare for hardware device and software tool.
 +
 +
=== <span style="color:#0070c0">Preparing for hardware device</span> ===
 +
 +
*The following URL provides information about the debug port slot and the debug port line for each device
 +
 +
[[Debug_Port_Information#i.MX6|Debug Port Information]]
 +
 +
=== <span style="color:#0070c0">Preparing for software tool</span> ===
 +
 +
*You need to prepare the debug console tool. For example: "minicom" tool or "putty" tool.
 +
*Baud rate: 115200
 +
 +
= Customization =
 +
 +
== <span style="color:#0070c0">Package addition</span> ==
 +
 +
=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To add tcf-agent & openssh-sftp-server</span> ===
 +
 +
:Navigate to the directory where fsl-image-adv.inc located
 +
::<code>$ cd <span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BSP_HOME}'''</span>/sources/meta-advantech/recipes-fsl/images</code>
 +
:Add following line to fsl-image-adv.inc
 +
::<code>IMAGE_INSTALL += " tcf-agent openssh-sftp-server "</code>
 +
:[[IoTGateway/BSP/Linux/iMX6/Yocto_LBV5_User_Guide#To_continue_an_exist_build_environment|Continue an exist build environment]] and [[IoTGateway/BSP/Linux/iMX6/Yocto_LBV5_User_Guide#To_build_sdcard_image|build sdcard image]]
 +
 +
=== <span style="color:#0070c0">To add chromium browser</span> ===
 +
 +
:Navigate to the directory where local.conf located
 +
::<code>$ cd <span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BSP_HOME}'''</span>/<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BDIR'''</span>'''<span style="color:#7030a0">}</span>'''/conf</code>
 +
:Add following two lines to local.conf
 +
::<code>CORE_IMAGE_EXTRA_INSTALL += "chromium"</code>
 +
::<code>LICENSE_FLAGS_WHITELIST="commercial"</code>
 +
:[[#To_continue_an_exist_build_environment|Continue an exist build environment]] and [[#To_build_sdcard_image|build sdcard image]]
 +
 +
== <span style="color:#0070c0">Setting up SDK</span> ==
 +
 +
:Please follow the section,[[IoTGateway/BSP/Linux/iMX6/Yocto_LBV5_User_Guide#To_build_toolchain_installer|<span style="color:#FF0000;">To build toolchain installer</span>]], to build one toolchain installer
 +
:Perform the following command in terminal console
 +
::<code>$ cd <span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BSP_HOME}'''</span>/<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BDIR}'''</span>/tmp/deploy/sdk</code>
 +
::<code>$ sudo ./fsl-imx-x11-glibc-x86_64-meta-toolchain-qt5-cortexa9hf-vfp-neon-toolchain-<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${KERNEL}'''</span>-1.1.0.sh</code><br/>
 +
:Enter new installed directory or just press <code>Enter</code> to use default directory.
 +
:While <code>Proceed[y/n]?</code> shows up, please enter the correct one.
 +
:Waiting for the SDK installed (while the following messages show up completely)
 +
::[[File:Setting up sdk 3.png|RTENOTITLE]]
 +
 +
== <span style="color:#0070c0">Setting up cross compiling environment</span> ==
 +
 +
:SDK has been set up (ref.[[#Setting_up_SDK|<span style="color:#FF0000;">Setting up SDK</span>]])
 +
:Perform the following command in terminal console
 +
::<code>$ source <span style="color:#7030a0">'''${TOOLCHAIN}'''</span>/environment-setup-cortexa9hf-vfp-neon-poky-linux-gnueabi</code>
 +
 +
== <span style="color:#0070c0">Building & updating u-boot manually</span> ==
 +
 +
:The cross compiling environment has been set up. (ref. [[#Setting_up_cross_compiling_environment|Setting up cross compiling environment]])
 +
 +
=== <span style="color:#0070c0">Copy BSP tarball to Container</span> ===
 +
 +
Refer to [http://ess-wiki.advantech.com.tw/view/IoTGateway/BSP/Linux/iMX6/Yocto_LBV8_User_Guide#Copy_BSP_tarball_to_Container <span style="color:#FF0000;">Copy_BSP_tarball_to_Container</span>] , copy u-boot tarball to ${WORKSPACE} and back to container change owner & unpack tarball
 +
 +
$ sudo chown adv:adv imx6LBV8210_2017-02-20_uboot-imx6.tgz
 +
$ tar zxvf imx6LBV8210_2017-02-20_uboot-imx6.tgz
 +
 +
=== <span style="color:#0070c0">Config u-boot</span> ===
 +
 +
$make '''${MX6PROC}${BOARD}${BOARD_REV}'''_'''${MEM_SIZE}'''_defconfig
 +
 +
eg.
 +
 +
$make mx6qrsb4411a1_1G_defconfig
 +
 +
=== <span style="color:#0070c0">Build u-boot</span> ===
 +
 +
$make -j4
 +
 +
=== <span style="color:#0070c0">Replace u-boot</span> ===
 +
 +
:Perform the following command to transfer to exist boot-up SD card
 +
 +
$ dd if=u-boot_crc.bin.crc of='''${SD_DEVICE}''' bs=512 seek=2 conv=fsync
 +
$ dd if=u-boot_crc.bin of='''${SD_DEVICE}''' bs=512 seek=3 conv=fsync
 +
 +
:Perform the following command to transfer to on-board flash
 +
 +
$ dd if=u-boot_crc.bin.crc of=/dev/mmcblk0 bs=512 seek=2 conv=fsync
 +
$ dd if=u-boot-crc.bin of=/dev/mmcblk0 bs=512 seek=3 conv=fsync
 +
 +
== <span style="color:#0070c0">Building & updating kernel/modules/dtb manually</span> ==
 +
 +
:The cross compiling environment has been set up. (ref. [[#Setting_up_cross_compiling_environment|Setting up cross compiling environment]])
 +
 +
=== <span style="color:#0070c0">Copy BSP tarball to Container</span> ===
 +
 +
Refer to [http://ess-wiki.advantech.com.tw/view/IoTGateway/BSP/Linux/iMX6/Yocto_LBV8_User_Guide#Copy_BSP_tarball_to_Container Copy_BSP_tarball_to_Container] , <span style="color:#FF0000;">copy kernel tarball </span>to ${WORKSPACE} and back to container
 +
 +
change owner & unpack tarball
 +
 +
$ sudo chown adv:adv imx6LBV8210_2017-02-20_linux-imx6.tgz
 +
$ tar zxvf imx6LBV8210_2017-02-20_linux-imx6.tgz
 +
 +
=== <span style="color:#0070c0">Config kernel</span> ===
 +
 +
:Configure linux kernel
 +
 +
$cd linux-imx6
 +
$make distclean
 +
$make imx_v7_adv_defconfig
 +
$make menuconfig
 +
 +
If you get error ,when you "make imx_v7_adv_defconfig" , you need to insatall "libncurses*"
 +
 +
$apt-get install libncurses*
 +
 +
[[File:Error.JPG|imx_v7_adv_defconfig_error]]
 +
 +
=== <span style="color:#0070c0">Build kernel</span> ===
 +
 +
:Start building linux kernel
 +
 +
$ make -j4 zImage
 +
 +
:The kernel image file, zImage, is located in the directory "./arch/arm/boot/".
 +
 +
:Start building kernel modules
 +
 +
$ make -j4 modules
 +
 +
:Copy all modules to a temporary rootfs directory, "~/temp/rootfs"
 +
 +
$ make modules_install INSTALL_MOD_PATH=~/temp/rootfs
 +
 +
:Building device tree blob
 +
 +
$ make -j4 <span style="color:#7030a0">'''${IMX6PROC}'''</span>-<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BOARD}'''</span>-<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BOARD_REV}'''</span>.dtb
 +
 +
:The device tree blob, <span style="color:#7030a0">'''${IMX6PROC}'''</span>-<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BOARD}'''</span>-<span style="color:#7030a0">'''${BOARD_REV}'''</span>.dtb, is located in the directory "./arch/arm/boot/dts/".
 +
 +
=== <span style="color:#0070c0">Replace kernel & dts</span> ===
 +
 +
:Replace kernel
 +
::copy zImage to SDcard or emmc
 +
:Replace dtb file
 +
::copy dtb file to SDcard or emmc
 +
 +
== <span style="color:#0070c0">Improve boot speed</span> ==
 +
 +
*Bootloader
 +
 +
1.bootdelay time
 +
 +
:We can cancel the bootdelay time by setting bootloader environment value.
 +
 +
setenv bootdelay 0
 +
env save
 +
reset
 +
 +
2.Disable console
 +
 +
:Disable debug message output can also improve boot speed
 +
 +
Disable kernel message
 +
 +
setenv mmcargs setenv bootargs console=${console},${baudrate} ${smp} root=${mmcroot} ${bootargs} '''quiet'''
 +
env save
 +
reset
 +
 +
Or
 +
 +
:Disable debug port
 +
 +
setenv console
 +
env save
 +
reset
 +
 +
*Rootfs
 +
 +
1.Use smaller rootfs
 +
 +
:We can speed up boot times by using a smaller rootfs instead of fsl-image-qt5 image
 +
 +
eg. core-image-full-cmdline, core-image-minimal
 +
 +
bitbake core-image-full-cmdline
 +
 +
It's a console-only image with more full-featured Linux system functionality installed.
 +
 +
And replace the original fsl-image-qt5 rootfs.
 +
 +
*Services
 +
 +
1. Using '''update-rc.d''' remove ,we can remove unnecessary services.
 +
 +
update-rc.d -f <basename> remove
 +
 +
= System Recovery =
 +
 +
Please refer to [[#Creating_boot-up_on-board_flash_from_prebuilt_image|Creating boot-up on-board flash from prebuilt image]] / [[#Creating_boot-up_on-board_flash_from_built_sdcard_image|sdcard image]] to create a boot-up SD card and transfer whole system to on-board flash.
 +
 +
= Package List =
 +
 +
'''In BSP''', list all packages which will be built in the image
 +
 +
bitbake -g '''fsl-image-qt5''' && cat pn-depends.dot | grep -v -e '-native' | grep -v digraph | grep -v -e '-image' \
 +
| awk '{print $1}' | sort | uniq
 +
 +
File:[[:File:BSP_package1.docx|Package List]]
 +
 +
Show all recipes (include non-installed packages)
 +
 +
bitbake -s
 +
 +
File:[[:File:BSP_package2.docx|Package Version List]]
 +
 +
You can also check <span style="color:purple">'''${BDIR}'''</span>/tmp/deploy/images/<span style="color:purple">'''${MC}'''</span>/fsl-image-qt5-<span style="color:purple">'''${MC}'''</span>.manifest
 +
 +
It will show the same content with checking by rpm tool on target board.
 +
 +
'''On target board''', list all packages by rpm tool
 +
 +
rpm -qa --root / --dbpath /var/lib/rpm | sort
 +
 +
File:[[:File:Onboard_package.docx|Package List]]

Revision as of 08:11, 27 September 2018


Contents

Getting Started

Conventions

${PREBUILT_IMAGE} : compressed prebuilt image (*.img.gz)

${CONTAINER_NAME} : container name (e.g. imx6LBV8040)

${BSP_TARBALL} : BSP tarball (*.tgz)

${BSP_HOME} : home directory of the BSP

${BDIR} : build directory (e.g. build_x11)

${MX7PROC} : i.MX7 Processor

mx7d for iMX7 Dual Core

${IMX7PROC} : i.MX7 Processor

imx7d

${BOARD} : available target boards list below

ebcrm01

${BOARD_REV} : board revision

a1

${MC} : machine code combined with ${IMX6PROC}${BOARD}${BOARD_REV}

for example,
imx7debcrm01a1 for EBC-RM01 A1

${MEM_SIZE} : memory size

2G

${SD_DEVICE} : device name of SD card in Linux (e.g. /dev/sdf)

${SDCARD_IMAGE} : sdcard image built by bitbake (*.sdcard)

${WORKSPACE} : host workspace folders

${UBOOT} :u-boot version(e.g. 2016.03)

${KERNEL} : linux kernel version(e.g. 4.1.15)

${TOOLCHAIN} : toolchain installed directory(e.g. /opt/fsl-imx-x11/4.1.15-2.0.0)

debug console / serial console

serial terminal program (e.g. minicom, putty, teraterm ...) that serial port is configured to 115200 8N1

terminal console

terminal program (e.g. gnome-terminal, xfce4-terminal ...)

Docker install and setting

If you don't have docker in your system, then you can follow the below  steps to install docker and run it first.

To install Docker Engine on your platform

Please refer to Docker Installation Guide for details

To pull ubuntu 12.04 image from Docker Hub 

$ docker pull advrisc/u12.04-imx6lbv3
$ docker run --name imx6LBV8xxx  -it advrisc/u12.04-imx6lbv3 /bin/bash

To copy BSP from local filesystem to the container

$ docker cp ${BSP_PACK} imx6LBV8xxx:/home/adv/ 

To create container

$ docker run --privileged -it --name ${CONTAINER_NAME} -v ${WORKSPACE}:/home/adv/adv-release-bsp -v /dev:/dev advrisc/u12.04-imx6lbv3 /bin/bash

Get BSP

You have two methods to put BSP into container created above

Download BSP From GitHub

The following example shows how to download the Advantech Yocto BSP from GitHub.
For this example, a directory called adv-release-bsp is created for the project.
Refer to IoTGateway/BSP/Linux/iMX7/OS Support List new , Official version "imx6LBV8xxx" is taken as an example :
$ git config --global user.name "Your Name"
$ git config --global user.email you@example.com
$ mkdir adv-release-bsp
$ sudo chown adv:adv adv-release-bsp
$ cd adv-release-bsp
$ repo init -u git://github.com/ADVANTECH-Corp/adv-arm-yocto-bsp.git -b refs/tags/imx6LBV8xxx -m imx6LBV8xxx.xml
$ repo sync
If you want to get latest bsp
$ repo init -u git://github.com/ADVANTECH-Corp/adv-arm-yocto-bsp.git -b imx-4.1-krogoth
$ repo sync

Copy BSP tarball to Container

If you have BSP tarball (eg. imx6LBV8xxx_2018-xx-xx.tgz), then you have to copy it into container.

Follow the steps below:

1.Exit container and back to local machine

$ exit

2.Copy BSP tarball to ${WORKSPACE} , and change owner

$ cp imx6LBV8xxx_2018-xx-xx.tgz ${WORKSPACE}
$ sudo chown adv:adv ${WORKSPACE}/imx6LBV8xxx_2018-xx-xx.tgz 

3.Back to container

$ docker start ${CONTAINER_NAME}
$ docker attach ${CONTAINER_NAME}

4.Unpack BSP tarball

$ tar zxvf imx6LBV8xxx_2018-xx-xx.tgz

Downloads tarball

Not necessarily step
During building  Yocto image , it will generate downloads folder which includes all packages we need , but it usually can't fetch normally, so we keep this downloads folder. Then we can reduce some fetch failed issue.
You can get Downloads tarball (downloads-2.1.tar.gz) from following URL:
https://pan.baidu.com/s/1nvqgx2T#list/path=%2FELAA%2Fimx6_yocto_bsp_2.1_2.0.0%2Fdownloads&parentPath=%2FELAA
If you get downloads tarball, you can copy to your ${WORKSPACE}

Follow the steps below:

1.Exit container and back to local machine

$ exit

2.Copy Downloads tarball to ${WORKSPACE} , and change owner

$ cp downloads-2.1.tar.gz ${WORKSPACE}
$ sudo chown adv:adv ${WORKSPACE}/downloads-2.1.tar.gz 

3.Back to container

$ docker start ${CONTAINER_NAME}
$ docker attach ${CONTAINER_NAME}

4.Unpack Downloads tarball

$ tar zxvf downloads-2.1.tar.gz

5.make link to downloads folder

$ cd adv-release-bsp
$ ln -s ${WORKSPACE}/downloads_2.1 downloads

Introducing BSP

The BSP is based on Yocto Project with Freescale enhanced features for i.MX6, plus specific target board features from Advantech Inc..
The Advantech Yocto Project BSP Release directory contains a "sources" directory, which contains the recipes used to build,

one or more build directories, and a set of scripts used to set up the environment.

The recipes used to build the project come from both the community and Advantech. The Yocto Project layers are downloaded

to the sources directory. This sets up the recipes that are used to build the project.

Naming Rule

The tarball/prebuilt image name is consist of the model name followed by "LB" or "LI" plus version number and released date.
For example, BSP file name: imx6LBV8040_2017-01-16.tgz
which , "LB" is acronym of Linux BSP,
           "V8040" stands for Version 8.040.








For example, Yocto image name: 7421A1LIV8040_DualPlus_2017-01-16.img.gz
which "7421A1" stands for ROM-7421 A1
          "LI" is acronym for prebuilt Linux Image,
          "DualPlus" means this image is fit for Dual Plus Core/Quad Plus Core.
For example, Yocto image name: 3420A1LIV8050_DualQuad_2017-01-17.img.gz
which "3420A1" stands for ROM-3420 A1
          "LI" is acronym for prebuilt Linux Image,
          "DualQuad" means this image is fit for Dual Core/Quad Core.
For example, Yocto image name: U220A1LIV8080_DualLiteSolo_2017-02-08.img.gz
which "U220A1" stands for UBC-220 A1
          "LI" is acronym for prebuilt Linux Image,
          "DualLiteSolo" means this image is fit for Dual Lite Core/Solo Core.

BSP Content

The description of some important folders list below:
sources/
meta-advantech/ : meta layer by Advantech
meta-fsl-*/ : meta layer by Freescale
fsl-setup-release.sh : to create one new build environment
setup-environment : to continue an exist build environment

Build Instructions

To create one new build environment

Perform the following commands in terminal console
$ cd ${BSP_HOME}
$ MACHINE=${MC} source fsl-setup-release.sh -b ${BDIR} -e x11
You need to read and accept the EULA.
RTENOTITLE

To continue an exist build environment

Perform the following commands in terminal console
$ cd ${BSP_HOME}
$ source setup-environment ${BDIR}

To build sdcard image

To create/continue a build environment
Perform the following command in terminal console
$ bitbake fsl-image-qt5
The file, fsl-image-qt5-${MC}.sdcard, will be located in directory, ./tmp/deploy/images/${MC}, while building process finished successfully.

To build toolchain installer

To create/continue a build environment
Perform the following command in terminal console
$ bitbake meta-toolchain-qt5
The below installer will be located in the directory "./tmp/deploy/sdk".
fsl-imx-x11-glibc-x86_64-meta-toolchain-qt5-cortexa9hf-vfp-neon-toolchain-${KERNEL}-1.1.0.sh

To build u-boot

To create/continue a build environment
Perform the following command in terminal console
$ bitbake u-boot-imx
The two files, u-boot_crc.bin & u-boot_crc.bin.crc, will be located in the directory, ./tmp/deploy/images/${MC}.

To modify source code and rebuild u-boot

To create/continue a build environment
Perform the following command in terminal console
to modify source code and created a patch file
$ git diff > test.patch
to create "u-boot-imx" directory and copy the "test.patch" file in following path
sources/meta-advantech/meta-fsl-imx6/recipes-bsp/u-boot$
to open "u-boot-imx_2016.03.bbappend" file in following path
sources/meta-advantech/meta-fsl-imx6/recipes-kernel$vi u-boot-imx_2016.03.bbappend
FILESEXTRAPATHS_prepend := "${THISDIR}/${PN}:"
SRCBRANCH = "imx_v2016.03_4.1.15_2.0.0_ga"
UBOOT_SRC = "..."
SRCREV = "${AUTOREV}"
to add path information of patch file to u-boot-imx_2016.03.bbappend file
SRC_URI += "file://test.patch
to clean u-boot image and code if you modify content of "mx6*.defconfig" file or "Makefile" file in the patch file
$ bitbake u-boot-imx -c cleansstate
to build u-boot image
$ bitbake u-boot-imx

To build linux kernel

To create/continue a build environment
If you operate on docker images, please install tmux application before running this command
$ sudo apt-get install tmux
Type following command to enter tmux
$ tmux
Perform the following command in terminal console to show up menuconfig
$ bitbake linux-imx -c menuconfig
After edit menuconfig, type following command to exit tmux windows
$ exit
to build kernel image
$ bitbake linux-imx
The two files, zImage & zImage-${IMX6PROC}-${BOARD}-${BOARD_REV}.dtb, will be located in the directory, ./tmp/deploy/images/${MC}.

To modify source code and rebuild linux kernel

To create/continue a build environment
Perform the following command in terminal console
to modify source code and created a patch file
$ git diff > test.patch
to create "linux-imx" directory and copy the "test.patch" file in following path 
sources/meta-advantech/meta-fsl-imx6/recipes-kernel/linux/linux-imx$
to open "linux-imx_4.1.15.bbappend" file in following path  (linux-imx_4.1.15.bbappend will check linux-imx folder  )
sources/meta-advantech/meta-fsl-imx6/recipes-kernel/linux/$vi linux-imx_4.1.15.bbappend
FILESEXTRAPATHS_prepend := "${THISDIR}/${PN}:"
SRCBRANCH = "imx_4.1.15_2.0.0_ga"
KERNEL_SRC = "..."
SRCREV = "${AUTOREV}"
to add path information of patch file to linux-imx_4.1.15.bbappend file
SRC_URI += "file://test.patch
to clean kernel image and code if you modify content of "imx_v7_adv_defconfig" file or "Makefile" file in the patch file
$ bitbake linux-imx -c cleansstate
to build kernel image
$ bitbake linux-imx

Creating boot-up on-board flash from prebuilt image

To create one boot-up SD card

Perform the following command in terminal console
$ gunzip -c ${PREBUILT_IMAGE | dd of=${SD_DEVICE} bs=1M
# sync

To transfer whole system to on-board flash

Boot up from SD card
Perform the following commands in debug console
# cd /mk_inand
# ./mksd-linux.sh /dev/mmcblk0
press y followed by Enter, if following message shows up:
RTENOTITLE
While "[Done]" shows up means the transferring is finished.

Creating boot-up on-board flash from built sdcard image

To create one boot-up SD card

Perform the following commands in terminal console
$ pushd ${BSP_HOME}/${BDIR}/tmp/deploy/images/${MC}
$ dd if=${SDCARD_IMAGE} of=${SD_DEVICE} bs=1M
$ sync
$ popd

To transfer whole system to on-board flash

Boot up from SD card
Insert USB stick that contains ${SDCARD_IMAGE}, USB stick will be auto mounted to /run/media/sda1.
Perform the following commands in debug console
# umount /dev/mmcblk0p?
# cd /run/media/sda1
# dd if=${SDCARD_IMAGE} of=/dev/mmcblk0 bs=4M conv=fsync
# P2START=$(fdisk -lu | grep mmcblk0p2 | awk '{print $2}')
# echo -e "d\n2\nn\np\n2\n${P2START}\n\nw\n" | fdisk -u /dev/mmcblk0
# umount /dev/mmcblk0p2
# e2fsck -f -y /dev/mmcblk0p2
# resize2fs /dev/mmcblk0p2
# poweroff

Debug console information

If you want to see debug message from device, you need to prepare for hardware device and software tool.

Preparing for hardware device

  • The following URL provides information about the debug port slot and the debug port line for each device

Debug Port Information

Preparing for software tool

  • You need to prepare the debug console tool. For example: "minicom" tool or "putty" tool.
  • Baud rate: 115200

Customization

Package addition

To add tcf-agent & openssh-sftp-server

Navigate to the directory where fsl-image-adv.inc located
$ cd ${BSP_HOME}/sources/meta-advantech/recipes-fsl/images
Add following line to fsl-image-adv.inc
IMAGE_INSTALL += " tcf-agent openssh-sftp-server "
Continue an exist build environment and build sdcard image

To add chromium browser

Navigate to the directory where local.conf located
$ cd ${BSP_HOME}/${BDIR}/conf
Add following two lines to local.conf
CORE_IMAGE_EXTRA_INSTALL += "chromium"
LICENSE_FLAGS_WHITELIST="commercial"
Continue an exist build environment and build sdcard image

Setting up SDK

Please follow the section,To build toolchain installer, to build one toolchain installer
Perform the following command in terminal console
$ cd ${BSP_HOME}/${BDIR}/tmp/deploy/sdk
$ sudo ./fsl-imx-x11-glibc-x86_64-meta-toolchain-qt5-cortexa9hf-vfp-neon-toolchain-${KERNEL}-1.1.0.sh
Enter new installed directory or just press Enter to use default directory.
While Proceed[y/n]? shows up, please enter the correct one.
Waiting for the SDK installed (while the following messages show up completely)
RTENOTITLE

Setting up cross compiling environment

SDK has been set up (ref.Setting up SDK)
Perform the following command in terminal console
$ source ${TOOLCHAIN}/environment-setup-cortexa9hf-vfp-neon-poky-linux-gnueabi

Building & updating u-boot manually

The cross compiling environment has been set up. (ref. Setting up cross compiling environment)

Copy BSP tarball to Container

Refer to Copy_BSP_tarball_to_Container , copy u-boot tarball to ${WORKSPACE} and back to container change owner & unpack tarball

$ sudo chown adv:adv imx6LBV8210_2017-02-20_uboot-imx6.tgz
$ tar zxvf imx6LBV8210_2017-02-20_uboot-imx6.tgz

Config u-boot

$make ${MX6PROC}${BOARD}${BOARD_REV}_${MEM_SIZE}_defconfig

eg.

$make mx6qrsb4411a1_1G_defconfig

Build u-boot

$make -j4

Replace u-boot

Perform the following command to transfer to exist boot-up SD card
$ dd if=u-boot_crc.bin.crc of=${SD_DEVICE} bs=512 seek=2 conv=fsync
$ dd if=u-boot_crc.bin of=${SD_DEVICE} bs=512 seek=3 conv=fsync
Perform the following command to transfer to on-board flash
$ dd if=u-boot_crc.bin.crc of=/dev/mmcblk0 bs=512 seek=2 conv=fsync
$ dd if=u-boot-crc.bin of=/dev/mmcblk0 bs=512 seek=3 conv=fsync

Building & updating kernel/modules/dtb manually

The cross compiling environment has been set up. (ref. Setting up cross compiling environment)

Copy BSP tarball to Container

Refer to Copy_BSP_tarball_to_Container , copy kernel tarball to ${WORKSPACE} and back to container

change owner & unpack tarball

$ sudo chown adv:adv imx6LBV8210_2017-02-20_linux-imx6.tgz
$ tar zxvf imx6LBV8210_2017-02-20_linux-imx6.tgz

Config kernel

Configure linux kernel
$cd linux-imx6
$make distclean
$make imx_v7_adv_defconfig
$make menuconfig

If you get error ,when you "make imx_v7_adv_defconfig" , you need to insatall "libncurses*"

$apt-get install libncurses*

imx_v7_adv_defconfig_error

Build kernel

Start building linux kernel
$ make -j4 zImage
The kernel image file, zImage, is located in the directory "./arch/arm/boot/".
Start building kernel modules
$ make -j4 modules
Copy all modules to a temporary rootfs directory, "~/temp/rootfs"
$ make modules_install INSTALL_MOD_PATH=~/temp/rootfs
Building device tree blob
$ make -j4 ${IMX6PROC}-${BOARD}-${BOARD_REV}.dtb
The device tree blob, ${IMX6PROC}-${BOARD}-${BOARD_REV}.dtb, is located in the directory "./arch/arm/boot/dts/".

Replace kernel & dts

Replace kernel
copy zImage to SDcard or emmc
Replace dtb file
copy dtb file to SDcard or emmc

Improve boot speed

  • Bootloader

1.bootdelay time

We can cancel the bootdelay time by setting bootloader environment value.
setenv bootdelay 0
env save
reset

2.Disable console

Disable debug message output can also improve boot speed

Disable kernel message

setenv mmcargs setenv bootargs console=${console},${baudrate} ${smp} root=${mmcroot} ${bootargs} quiet
env save
reset

Or

Disable debug port
setenv console
env save
reset
  • Rootfs

1.Use smaller rootfs

We can speed up boot times by using a smaller rootfs instead of fsl-image-qt5 image

eg. core-image-full-cmdline, core-image-minimal

bitbake core-image-full-cmdline

It's a console-only image with more full-featured Linux system functionality installed.

And replace the original fsl-image-qt5 rootfs.

  • Services

1. Using update-rc.d remove ,we can remove unnecessary services.

update-rc.d -f <basename> remove

System Recovery

Please refer to Creating boot-up on-board flash from prebuilt image / sdcard image to create a boot-up SD card and transfer whole system to on-board flash.

Package List

In BSP, list all packages which will be built in the image

bitbake -g fsl-image-qt5 && cat pn-depends.dot | grep -v -e '-native' | grep -v digraph | grep -v -e '-image' \
| awk '{print $1}' | sort | uniq

File:Package List

Show all recipes (include non-installed packages)

bitbake -s

File:Package Version List

You can also check ${BDIR}/tmp/deploy/images/${MC}/fsl-image-qt5-${MC}.manifest

It will show the same content with checking by rpm tool on target board.

On target board, list all packages by rpm tool

rpm -qa --root / --dbpath /var/lib/rpm | sort

File:Package List